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On Saturday 14 and 15 November and a Tara Mines train was used in testing of the new bridge at Malahide. In an overhaul programme started for all eighteen class members which includes an engine rebuild, refurbished bogies, new panels, new cabs and a new slate grey livery complete with European numbering. As of September , the entire Class has been refurbished. Class members that had been out of use for a number of years have been reinstated into service after overhaul.
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In July , loco was overhauled and repainted back to the original Irish Rail livery dating back to in order to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the company. NI Railways has three of these locomotives, which are now mainly used for ballasting duties since their replacement on the Enterprise and other passenger duties. These locomotives are numbered , , and In , it was announced that NIR's three locomotives were to be converted to push-pull operation. The Gatwick Express carriages have also been disposed of to the RPSI, leaving the Class locomotives with no normal passenger duties.
They were originally intended by Yugoslav Railways for use with Tito's special Blue Train , hence their all blue livery. These locomotives differ from the Irish units in being standard gauge rather than Irish mm gauge and having a full width car-body. Three locomotives are currently not operational and awaiting overhaul, while Sutjeska started running test rides in January after an overhaul in Kraljevo.
On Friday 23 January re-entered service. All three NIR locomotives are named after former railway companies. Only one of the IE locomotives is named. Details are as follows:. It included transfers, brass detailing railings, fans, grills and flush glazing. Murphy Models have released an '00' gauge ready to run model of the class. This has been available since October Both the and class have been produced as player drivable locomotives in the Microsoft Train Simulator add-on, "Irish Enterprise North" by Making Tracks.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Irish Railway Record Society. Archived from the original on 5 May Archived from the original on 15 May RTS in Russian. Retrieved 16 May Sites radiocarbon dated to the EIA are frequently not what one would traditionally call settlements, instead producing evidence of simple hearths, pits, cereal-drying kilns, or burnt mounds: these demonstrate human activity but are insufficient to allow the reconstruction of settlement pattern. Sites such as Claristown 4, Co. Meath Russell a , Kilsharvan 5, Co.
Meath Russell b , or Cloongownagh, Co. Roscommon Henry are examples of isolated pits with no other associated features, but whose 14C dates provided evidence for EIA activity. While many of the recently identified sites discovered during major infrastructure programs were given separate site designations and license numbers, per standard practice, they were likely part of a landscape of Iron Age occupation. Take for example the aforementioned Claristown 4, Co.
Meath; found very close by was a site with two pits and two hearths dating to the DIA Claristown 3 , and a very interesting site with Neolithic and Iron Age ring-ditches, multiple burials from the DIA and early Medieval period, and an Iron Age structure Claristown 2; Russell In some instances, there are landscapes of ironworking sites that should probably be considered parts of complexes of sites rather than individual occupations Garstki , For example, surrounding the modern town of Kinnegad, Co.
Westmeath seven sites1 have been identified within 3 km of each other that span the EIA and DIA and contained features associated with iron production. While it is outside of the scope of this article to investigate all of the larger Iron Age landscapes of occupation, it is worth considering in future reconstructions of Irish prehistory.
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Even with this more recent evidence, the EIA appears to have been characterized by a dispersed population without any significant agglomeration. Raftery noted that if tents became the dominant form of housing, they would leave little or no archaeological evidence , A nomadic way of life could be considered as a possible explanation for the paucity of EIA settlement sites, but of course absence of evidence does not always translate to evidence of absence.
A movement towards itinerancy would require a substantial shift in lifestyle, specifically in how food is procured. Such a change towards a more pastoral focus is a possibility, and some have noted a shift towards pastoralism at the end of the LBA Plunkett However, more recent secondary evidence of agricultural activity suggests that farming did not cease at the onset of the Iron Age, which would have made living an itinerant lifestyle difficult.
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The influx of recent excavation data has provided some new examples of Iron Age cereal-drying kilns, such as the DIA site of Cookstown, Co. Meath Clutterbuck , which were used to process grains for a variety of purposes. The increase in archaeobotanical data from more recently excavated sites is now beginning to demonstrate patterns of land use and the types of crops utilized during this period. At the site of Cookstown, Co. Meath, carbonized cereal grains, in the form of barley and wheat, were found in association with possible ritual ring- ditches Clutterbuck Wexford, suggest that a wider range of cereals as compared to foraged foodstuffs were being utilized, such as naked barley, hulled barley, hulled wheat, and oats McLoughlin Wicklow Frazer Armagh, or Johnstown 1, Co.
Meath Becker et al. Additionally, as in the EIA, there are a number of more ephemeral activity sites that only include pits, hearths, or remains of industrial activities. Currently, there does not appear to be any change in settlement type through these two early phases of the Iron Age. Although the settlement record shows a fairly dispersed population, there are indications that at various times people came together for larger building projects.
Iron Age trackways demonstrate the ability of large groups of people to gather and construct a means of transport across otherwise unpassable terrain. The Corlea trackway in Co. Longford, the most famous of these examples Raftery; , dates to BC. It consisted of large timber beams laid sequentially for upwards of 2 km — a minimum of and large oak trees were required for the construction of this trackway Raftery , Tipperary Taylor , as well as some smaller examples Raftery ; McDermott et al. Meath, Navan, Co.
Armagh, Knockaulin, Co. Kildare, and Rathcroghan, Co. Although most of these sites stand as prime examples of archaeological palimpsests, they document large-scale ceremonial activity during the DIA Newman ; Mallory and Lynn ; Johnston and Wailes ; Grogan ; Waddell et al. These sites, as well as the recently discovered Lismullin, Co. The evidence for iron production during this period should be consi- dered as a part of the social fission-fusion that appeared to be occurring.
Context number of feature listed after the site name. The separated contexts on the bottom of the figure were not calibrated by the author and the calibration curve is unknown. This may have come in the form of people settling in Ireland from elsewhere, or from individuals travelling outside of Ireland learning the skills of iron smelting and returning home to share that knowledge. Despite also being a metallurgical technology, ironworking differed from the bronze-working technology in a number of ways that required knowledge to be shared from the outside rather than develop in situ.
For example, the production of iron requires a higher temperature than earlier copper smelting, facilitated in part by a specialized furnace. Additionally, the shaping of an iron bloom after smelting requires a completely different knowledge base than does bronze casting.
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Figure 1 shows the directly dated ironworking features in Ireland, with some dates that span the eighth century. Dating the initial adoption of these technologies is difficult; the 2 sigma 14C dates provide a wide range, meaning that any of the EIA furnaces and hearths may have been used either at the beginning or end of the period.
Sites with direct 14C dates taken from furnaces and smithing hearths demonstrate that the knowledge required for iron production existed in Ireland during the EIA at least at a small scale. Production continued to increase over time, from the EIA through to the LIA, to judge from the increased number of sites and the higher number of furnaces at those sites.
Thirty-seven sites dating to these periods have been identified that contain evidence of smithing or smelting, representing a total of smelting furnaces and 13 smithing hearths Table 2 Garstki Smelting In his seminal work on Irish ironworking, Scott suggests that the bowl furnace was likely used during the Iron Age.
Building on this foundation, it is possible to now paint a more complete picture of iron production technology. Throughout the EIA and DIA, the current archaeological evidence suggests that the main type of furnace used was the non-slag tapping slag-pit and low shaft furnace. During this period, an altered form of this furnace came into use. The site of Derrinsallagh 4 in Co. This site is the largest known prehistoric iron production site in Ireland, with upwards of 44 smelting furnaces. One of these furnaces, C, was lifted en bloc in order to excavate the feature off site.
The excavation and analysis was carried out by Dr. Tim Young of GeoArch Based on his analysis, we now know of a variant of the common furnace in which a furnace arch, mostly or completely below the original surface, connected the furnace pit to a separate working hollow Fig. Tipperary E Derrinsallagh 5, Co. Dublin 02E Chapelbride 1, Co.
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Cork E Leap 1, Co. Laois 95E Burial IA X 8 Knockaulin Ritual IA X slag worked in the adjacent hollow, or the hollow could have been used for depositing the cleared charcoal and slag from the used furnace. The arch was about 16 cm above the bottom of the slag pit, so it could not have been used for tapping the slag since the slag has to be tapped in its liquid state and at that point settles in the base of the furnace. Peter Crew has noted this type of furnace technology during excavations at Bryn y Castell and Crawcwellt in Wales ; A very complete slag-pit shaft furnace was also recovered at Grange 2, Co.
Meath, including a basal arch, dating to the Early Medieval period Kelly Its appearance indicates both a level of experimentation by iron producers and variability in practices during this period, as well as potential participation in knowledge held by communities outside Ireland. Smithing The identification of a primary or secondary smithing hearth5 is quite difficult when based solely on the morphology of the feature in the field. An open hearth or forge can achieve such temperatures without a larger structure needed to maintain a high heat.
Currently, 10 sites indicate some level of iron smithing based on the remains of a hearth. Other sites exhibit evidence of smithing slag without the presence of any identifiable smithing features: Cherryville Site 12, Knockaulin, Lisnagar Demesne I, Monganstown, and Harlockstown 19 Fairburn ; ; Young ; Johnston and Wailes ; Photos-Jones There is an unfortunate dearth of remains dating to this period to provide an insight into the final production stages of ironworking.
The few smithing tools identified by Scott date to a later period or have no secure date , 23 , and finished objects are very rarely found in securely datable contexts. As noted above, many iron objects have been known to date to the Iron Age since the early in the last century Raftery ; However, as Raftery specifically states, using art styles to date unprovenanced material is extremely unreliable , 4—5.
Of course, the possible archaeological knowledge that can be derived from these materials, and other iron objects found more recently, through techniques such as metallography is still significant.
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