After certification, they became eligible for grants from public money in proportion to the number of children catered for. Although Reformatory Schools were established first, Industrial Schools soon surpassed them, both in numbers of schools and of pupils. Between and , ten Reformatories five each for boys and girls were certified.
The Act insured that Protestant and Catholic children would be catered for separately, preventing proselytising. Industrial Schools reached a maximum of 71 in Of the 61 in what is now the Republic of Ireland, 56 schools were Catholic-run and 5 were Protestant-run. Of the ten in what is now Northern Ireland, six were Catholic-run and four Protestant-run.
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Of the nine Protestant Industrial Schools in Ireland, five were for girls and four for boys. By , only seven of the ten original Reformatories remained.
A number of the reformatories were re-certified as Industrial Schools so that by , only five remained one of which was a Reformatory for boys in Northern Ireland. The reformatory school population, which was nearly immediately after the passing of the Act, fell to in , and to in However, by , there were 50 industrial schools, and the highest number of industrial schools was reached in , when there were a total of 71 schools, of which 61 56 schools for Catholics and five for Protestants were in the 26 counties.
According to the Ryan report, the Department of Education and Skills has calculated the number of children discharged from Industrial Schools and Reformatories from to the s as approximately 42, As the format of the statistical report changed during the s, the population of the schools, which was well in decline by then, is given as an estimate only.
The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse was established in with functions including the investigation of abuse of children in institutions in the State.
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It was dependent on people giving evidence which they did in large numbers. The conclusion of the report, issued in May , was that over a period going back at least to the s, many children in Industrial Schools in the Republic had been subjected to systematic and sustained physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. It also found that the perpetrators of this violence had been protected by their religious superiors, primarily out of self-interest to maintain the reputations of the institutions concerned.
Vaccine trials in some Industrial Schools were to be investigated by the Commission, but were discontinued by the Commission in following Court judgement.
Industrial Schools in Ireland
Judicial Review proceedings seeking, inter alia , a declaration that the Order which established the Vaccine Trials Inquiry was ultra vires the Act of , were initiated in November On 25 November , an undertaking was given to the High Court, by the Commission, that it would not conduct any hearings in relation to the matters within the ambit of the Order, until the matter was settled. The practical effect of this undertaking was that the work of the Division was suspended at that point and never re-commenced, given the subsequent decision of the Court, that the Order was ultra vires the Act.
Richard Robert Cherry, a future Chief Justice of Ireland , speaking in was of the opinion that:. It is impossible to exaggerate the good effect of The latter have been particularly successful in Ireland; and the combination of voluntary effort and private management, with State regulation and partial support—a rather dangerous experiment—has been completely justified by the result.
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The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse, concluded almost one hundred years later, documents widespread serious neglect as well as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children in many of the schools. The Commission only investigated complaints dating back to the s that is, with direct evidence from living persons , but its findings are at odds with Lord Justice Cherry's earlier assessment of the success of the 'experiment'. The Fisheries School in Baltimore, West Cork was run by a local board of management and directed by the local parish priest.
The school was closed in the s and its records allegedly deliberately destroyed.
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